1. Home
  2. Learn & Care
  3. Pet Birds
  4. Parakeets can be amazing pets that happily bond with their human flock members. While the common name “parakeet" can refer to many small parrots, the most familiar pet parakeet is the budgerigar, or budgie (Melopsittacus undulatus).

Tips For Parakeet Care and Bonding

parakeet care and bonding

Parakeets can be amazing pets that happily bond with their human flock members. While the common name “parakeet" can refer to many small parrots, the most familiar pet parakeet is the budgerigar, or budgie (Melopsittacus undulatus). These colorful, long-tailed, slim-bodied parakeets are native to Australia but have been bred in captivity since the 1850s. Today, they are the most popular pet bird in the world, and parakeet care has been refined to ensure these birds have healthy, happy lives. Knowing more about budgies can help you decide if a parakeet is a good pet for you and your family flock.

Why Parakeets Make Good Pets

These small birds measure just 10 to 12 inches from the top of the head to the tip of their long, tapering tails. This means a parakeet can be perfectly comfortable in a smaller space, and they don't need as much extensive care as larger pet birds, such as macaws, would. Parakeets are social, interactive birds that love to play and are easily tamed. They can be noisy, but their chittering, chattering, and whistling is rarely overly disruptive — a budgie will only be uncomfortably loud when they're stressed or anxious. A parakeet typically lives five to eight years and may live up to 15 years if in exceptionally good health and well cared for. This lifespan is ideal for many pet owners, without any worry of possibly outliving a bird and needing to arrange for their care with other family members.

Parakeet Habitats

A cage measuring 18 inches deep, 18 inches long, and 24 inches wide is a minimum size for a parakeet, but a larger cage will be more comfortable and keep the bird happier. Ideally, a pet parakeet should have as large a habitat as the available space or their owner's budget allows. However, these smaller birds can be comfortable so long as their cage has enough space to turn around, spread their wings, and fly from side to side.

Horizontal bars are best for a parakeet habitat, as these birds are active climbers and will happily explore their space. Bars should be no more than one-half inch apart, or the bird may get stuck or try to escape. Doors should use clip latches to stay securely fastened since parakeets are smart enough to puzzle out simple latches and gates for a sneaky getaway.

The habitat should have several perches at different heights, and parakeets tend to prefer higher perches. Ladders angled against the sides of the cage will provide perches and fun climbing for these active birds.

Parakeet Diets

Parakeets are seed-eating birds, but a varied diet will help a pet bird get the proper nutrition. Pellets formulated for small birds are ideal, and
adding millet sprays or seed mixes as a treat will give them more variety. Small amounts of finely chopped fruits, vegetables, and nuts are also great additions to a budgie's diet, and the bird should always have access to clean, fresh water. Do not overfeed your pet parakeet. These small birds don't require huge meals, and uneaten food can quickly spoil and cause illness. Obesity can be a problem with parakeets if the bird is overfed and doesn't get adequate exercise.

Bonding And Playing With Your Parakeet

Toys, playtime, and training are all essential parts of good parakeet care and exercise, which will help you create a personal bond with your pet. These social birds love interaction but can be shy and hesitant, especially when young. It is important to be patient and gentle with a parakeet, and as the bird grows accustomed to you and learns to trust you, even more interaction will be possible. Talking, whistling, and singing with your parakeet is a fine start to socialization, and using treats as motivation can help parakeets learn tricks. These birds are fast learners and will soon learn how to step up and down. More advanced tricks, similar to what might be taught to a dog, include teaching a parakeet to roll over, wave, play dead, fetch, or even do fun activities like riding on miniature skateboards or dancing. Daily training sessions will strengthen the bond between you and your parakeet, but keep sessions to no more than 10 to 15 minutes to avoid stress or boredom. To build the strongest bond and achieve the best training results, spread several sessions throughout the day. When you aren't around, your parakeet will need toys to entertain itself. These colorful birds love colorful toys, and moving parts such as spinners, bells, or balls are especially attractive to parakeets. Swings and ladders are other toy options, and layered play centers are perfect for climbing on and foraging through. Every few days, rotate toys in and out of the cage to stimulate the bird with new activities for more interesting play.

Is Your Parakeet Happy And Healthy

Ultimately, good, thoughtful care will help keep your parakeet happy and healthy. The bird should be active and noisy but not overly frantic or loud, and they should be responsive to your presence and interactions. The bird should eat well and preen regularly. The parakeet's feathers should be in good condition, and there should be no obvious signs of poor health such as bald spots, crusty eyes, or nasal discharge - if these are noticed, it is critical to consult an avian veterinarian immediately for diagnosis and treatment. A budgie can be a fine pet bird to enjoy, and with proper parakeet care, these beautiful, social birds will quickly fly into your heart as you create a bond and enjoy being part of each other's flock. 

Resources

Bird Adviser - Are Parakeets Good Pets?

ParakeetCare.org - About Parakeets

ParakeetCare.org - Parakeet Cages Pet

Helpful - How to Socialize Your Parakeet

Parrot Website - 25 Tricks to Teach Your Parrot

 

Before you can bring a bird into your home, you must purchase everything you will require for his care. Fortunately, all the items your pet will need should be available from your local pet store. The following are the basic must-have supplies.
 
Habitat
The size of the habitat you need will depend on the bird (or birds) you plan to keep, but a good rule of thumb is to house your bird in the largest habitat that you can afford and have room for in your home. (If you can't purchase or place a very large habitat, you shouldn't acquire a large bird.)
 
Your habitat should be square or rectangular rather than round to provide your pet with more room to fly and move. Also, the bars should be evenly spaced, not tapered toward the top. In a habitat with tapered bars, a bird can get his toe, wing, or even his head caught where the bars come together, causing serious injury. The habitat should also have a removable grate at the bottom (usually made of metal) above the habitat tray that catches the bird's waste and prevents him from getting to it.
The habitat itself should be made of metal or a combination of metal and plastic (combo habitats for small birds only). Stainless steel (best), powder-coated steel (better), and galvanized after weld (good) suitable habitat materials—other metals may contain harmful toxins that your bird could ingest. Acrylic habitats can also work well for smaller birds because the solid walls prevent mess, but moisture can build up in the habitat if it doesn't have adequate ventilation. 
 
Bedding/Habitat Lining
A variety of materials can be used to line your bird's habitat, but the best options are newspaper or commercial bird litters such as Kaytee Walnut Litter. Both are safe, inexpensive, easy to replace, and clearly show a bird's droppings, which can be important for monitoring his health. (A change in droppings may indicate a potential health problem.)  If you suspect health issues due to dropping appearance, place wax paper down as a liner to get a really good look at the droppings. 
 
Food and Water
Stainless steel is the ideal material for food & water cups because it's easy to scrub and disinfect. Although your habitat may come with a couple plastic cups, these can become scratched, allowing bacteria to grow in the crevices.  Birds can also be taught to use a water bottle, ensuring they cannot reach it and chew through it. 
 
Food
For long-term good health provide a balanced diet, preferably a pelleted of extruded diet.  Supplement with fresh vegetables and fruits depending on the species.  High value items like high fat seed and nuts make excellent training treats.   A seed mix diet may be deficient in minerals, especially calcium, as well as vitamins and amino acids, so mineral block or cuttlebone should be provided.  This should not be necessary if the bird is eating primarily a pelleted or extruded diet.
A breeding female may need additional calcium to form eggs. 
 
Perches
Perches can be made of natural branches, wood, plastic or PVC, rope, concrete, or pumice. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages. Offer your bird perches of assorted materials which vary in diameter. A bird who stands on the same perch consistently may develop foot disorders, especially if it is hard and abrasive or too large for its feet.  Ideally the foot should wrap approximately ¾ of the way around the perch.  Change out the perches, as you do bird toys this way a bird that likes to stand in the exact same spot will be forced to stand on a different perch. 
 
Bird Bath
Birds bathe in a variety of ways.  Some birds love to be misted with fine mist from a bottle of warm water, others love to bathe in a shallow bowl while others still will like to join you in the shower!  That’s right, you can purchase a shower perch and let your bird spend quality time with you.  Baths are very important to a birds’ health, remember many birds come from a tropical climate that is very humid and wet.  Play with bathing to find out which way your bird likes best, you want bathing to be enjoyable – not stressful!  Bathing supplies can be purchased at your local pet store or department store.  
 
Toys and Enrichment
Most birds benefit from having items in their habitat to keep them active and entertained. A wide variety of toys are available, and different birds enjoy different types of toys.
 
Provide a variety of toy types for your bird in the habitat setup: thinking toys (items that stimulate his mind); action toys (items that make a lot of noise or require your bird to move); comfort toys (items that your bird can enjoy calmly and quietly); and toys to destroy (items he can chew to keep his beak in good condition).  You’ll quickly see which toys your bird prefers and this will allow you to keep him well entertained.  A bored bird can quickly pick up bad, remember birds in the wild are very active and are ever moving and foraging.  
 
There are other ways to enrich your bird’s life than just toys, although toys are a necessary item! You can purchase or play video’s for your birds with other bird sounds or just interesting audio.  A more current approach is to enrich your bird by providing foraging opportunities, treats hidden within toys or homemade items such as a cardboard tube and coffee filters.  Be creative, but safe!
 
Travel Carrier
A travel carrier is necessary for taking your bird to the vet's office and other places. Soft fabric carriers are popular, but if your bird is ill they are difficult to disinfect.  Plastic airline kennels are also practical and easy to disinfect if needed. It should also have adequate ventilation and a place to put food and water dishes. If you plan to travel with your pet, select a model which will fit under the seat of an airplane.
It’s important to make the carrier a safe and desirable destination, this can be done by using it as a place to offer treats and allow your bird to walk in on its own to fetch those treats.  If a bird is caught up and placed aggressively in the carrier, it will quickly become a scary place they don’t want to go and each time will become harder and harder to get your bird into it. 
 
Before you can bring a bird into your home, you must purchase everything you will require for his care. Fortunately, all the items your pet will need should be available from your local pet store. The following are the basic must-have supplies.
 
Habitat
The size of the habitat you need will depend on the bird (or birds) you plan to keep, but a good rule of thumb is to house your bird in the largest habitat that you can afford and have room for in your home. (If you can't purchase or place a very large habitat, you shouldn't acquire a large bird.)
 
Your habitat should be square or rectangular rather than round to provide your pet with more room to fly and move. Also, the bars should be evenly spaced, not tapered toward the top. In a habitat with tapered bars, a bird can get his toe, wing, or even his head caught where the bars come together, causing serious injury. The habitat should also have a removable grate at the bottom (usually made of metal) above the habitat tray that catches the bird's waste and prevents him from getting to it.
The habitat itself should be made of metal or a combination of metal and plastic (combo habitats for small birds only). Stainless steel (best), powder-coated steel (better), and galvanized after weld (good) suitable habitat materials—other metals may contain harmful toxins that your bird could ingest. Acrylic habitats can also work well for smaller birds because the solid walls prevent mess, but moisture can build up in the habitat if it doesn't have adequate ventilation. 
 
Bedding/Habitat Lining
A variety of materials can be used to line your bird's habitat, but the best options are newspaper or commercial bird litters such as Kaytee Walnut Litter. Both are safe, inexpensive, easy to replace, and clearly show a bird's droppings, which can be important for monitoring his health. (A change in droppings may indicate a potential health problem.)  If you suspect health issues due to dropping appearance, place wax paper down as a liner to get a really good look at the droppings. 
 
Food and Water
Stainless steel is the ideal material for food & water cups because it's easy to scrub and disinfect. Although your habitat may come with a couple plastic cups, these can become scratched, allowing bacteria to grow in the crevices.  Birds can also be taught to use a water bottle, ensuring they cannot reach it and chew through it. 
 
Food
For long-term good health provide a balanced diet, preferably a pelleted of extruded diet.  Supplement with fresh vegetables and fruits depending on the species.  High value items like high fat seed and nuts make excellent training treats.   A seed mix diet may be deficient in minerals, especially calcium, as well as vitamins and amino acids, so mineral block or cuttlebone should be provided.  This should not be necessary if the bird is eating primarily a pelleted or extruded diet.
A breeding female may need additional calcium to form eggs. 
 
Perches
Perches can be made of natural branches, wood, plastic or PVC, rope, concrete, or pumice. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages. Offer your bird perches of assorted materials which vary in diameter. A bird who stands on the same perch consistently may develop foot disorders, especially if it is hard and abrasive or too large for its feet.  Ideally the foot should wrap approximately ¾ of the way around the perch.  Change out the perches, as you do bird toys this way a bird that likes to stand in the exact same spot will be forced to stand on a different perch. 
 
Bird Bath
Birds bathe in a variety of ways.  Some birds love to be misted with fine mist from a bottle of warm water, others love to bathe in a shallow bowl while others still will like to join you in the shower!  That’s right, you can purchase a shower perch and let your bird spend quality time with you.  Baths are very important to a birds’ health, remember many birds come from a tropical climate that is very humid and wet.  Play with bathing to find out which way your bird likes best, you want bathing to be enjoyable – not stressful!  Bathing supplies can be purchased at your local pet store or department store.  
 
Toys and Enrichment
Most birds benefit from having items in their habitat to keep them active and entertained. A wide variety of toys are available, and different birds enjoy different types of toys.
 
Provide a variety of toy types for your bird in the habitat setup: thinking toys (items that stimulate his mind); action toys (items that make a lot of noise or require your bird to move); comfort toys (items that your bird can enjoy calmly and quietly); and toys to destroy (items he can chew to keep his beak in good condition).  You’ll quickly see which toys your bird prefers and this will allow you to keep him well entertained.  A bored bird can quickly pick up bad, remember birds in the wild are very active and are ever moving and foraging.  
 
There are other ways to enrich your bird’s life than just toys, although toys are a necessary item! You can purchase or play video’s for your birds with other bird sounds or just interesting audio.  A more current approach is to enrich your bird by providing foraging opportunities, treats hidden within toys or homemade items such as a cardboard tube and coffee filters.  Be creative, but safe!
 
Travel Carrier
A travel carrier is necessary for taking your bird to the vet's office and other places. Soft fabric carriers are popular, but if your bird is ill they are difficult to disinfect.  Plastic airline kennels are also practical and easy to disinfect if needed. It should also have adequate ventilation and a place to put food and water dishes. If you plan to travel with your pet, select a model which will fit under the seat of an airplane.
It’s important to make the carrier a safe and desirable destination, this can be done by using it as a place to offer treats and allow your bird to walk in on its own to fetch those treats.  If a bird is caught up and placed aggressively in the carrier, it will quickly become a scary place they don’t want to go and each time will become harder and harder to get your bird into it. 
 
Before you can bring a bird into your home, you must purchase everything you will require for his care. Fortunately, all the items your pet will need should be available from your local pet store. The following are the basic must-have supplies.
 
Habitat
The size of the habitat you need will depend on the bird (or birds) you plan to keep, but a good rule of thumb is to house your bird in the largest habitat that you can afford and have room for in your home. (If you can't purchase or place a very large habitat, you shouldn't acquire a large bird.)
 
Your habitat should be square or rectangular rather than round to provide your pet with more room to fly and move. Also, the bars should be evenly spaced, not tapered toward the top. In a habitat with tapered bars, a bird can get his toe, wing, or even his head caught where the bars come together, causing serious injury. The habitat should also have a removable grate at the bottom (usually made of metal) above the habitat tray that catches the bird's waste and prevents him from getting to it.
The habitat itself should be made of metal or a combination of metal and plastic (combo habitats for small birds only). Stainless steel (best), powder-coated steel (better), and galvanized after weld (good) suitable habitat materials—other metals may contain harmful toxins that your bird could ingest. Acrylic habitats can also work well for smaller birds because the solid walls prevent mess, but moisture can build up in the habitat if it doesn't have adequate ventilation. 
 
Bedding/Habitat Lining
A variety of materials can be used to line your bird's habitat, but the best options are newspaper or commercial bird litters such as Kaytee Walnut Litter. Both are safe, inexpensive, easy to replace, and clearly show a bird's droppings, which can be important for monitoring his health. (A change in droppings may indicate a potential health problem.)  If you suspect health issues due to dropping appearance, place wax paper down as a liner to get a really good look at the droppings. 
 
Food and Water
Stainless steel is the ideal material for food & water cups because it's easy to scrub and disinfect. Although your habitat may come with a couple plastic cups, these can become scratched, allowing bacteria to grow in the crevices.  Birds can also be taught to use a water bottle, ensuring they cannot reach it and chew through it. 
 
Food
For long-term good health provide a balanced diet, preferably a pelleted of extruded diet.  Supplement with fresh vegetables and fruits depending on the species.  High value items like high fat seed and nuts make excellent training treats.   A seed mix diet may be deficient in minerals, especially calcium, as well as vitamins and amino acids, so mineral block or cuttlebone should be provided.  This should not be necessary if the bird is eating primarily a pelleted or extruded diet.
A breeding female may need additional calcium to form eggs. 
 
Perches
Perches can be made of natural branches, wood, plastic or PVC, rope, concrete, or pumice. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages. Offer your bird perches of assorted materials which vary in diameter. A bird who stands on the same perch consistently may develop foot disorders, especially if it is hard and abrasive or too large for its feet.  Ideally the foot should wrap approximately ¾ of the way around the perch.  Change out the perches, as you do bird toys this way a bird that likes to stand in the exact same spot will be forced to stand on a different perch. 
 
Bird Bath
Birds bathe in a variety of ways.  Some birds love to be misted with fine mist from a bottle of warm water, others love to bathe in a shallow bowl while others still will like to join you in the shower!  That’s right, you can purchase a shower perch and let your bird spend quality time with you.  Baths are very important to a birds’ health, remember many birds come from a tropical climate that is very humid and wet.  Play with bathing to find out which way your bird likes best, you want bathing to be enjoyable – not stressful!  Bathing supplies can be purchased at your local pet store or department store.  
 
Toys and Enrichment
Most birds benefit from having items in their habitat to keep them active and entertained. A wide variety of toys are available, and different birds enjoy different types of toys.
 
Provide a variety of toy types for your bird in the habitat setup: thinking toys (items that stimulate his mind); action toys (items that make a lot of noise or require your bird to move); comfort toys (items that your bird can enjoy calmly and quietly); and toys to destroy (items he can chew to keep his beak in good condition).  You’ll quickly see which toys your bird prefers and this will allow you to keep him well entertained.  A bored bird can quickly pick up bad, remember birds in the wild are very active and are ever moving and foraging.  
 
There are other ways to enrich your bird’s life than just toys, although toys are a necessary item! You can purchase or play video’s for your birds with other bird sounds or just interesting audio.  A more current approach is to enrich your bird by providing foraging opportunities, treats hidden within toys or homemade items such as a cardboard tube and coffee filters.  Be creative, but safe!
 
Travel Carrier
A travel carrier is necessary for taking your bird to the vet's office and other places. Soft fabric carriers are popular, but if your bird is ill they are difficult to disinfect.  Plastic airline kennels are also practical and easy to disinfect if needed. It should also have adequate ventilation and a place to put food and water dishes. If you plan to travel with your pet, select a model which will fit under the seat of an airplane.
It’s important to make the carrier a safe and desirable destination, this can be done by using it as a place to offer treats and allow your bird to walk in on its own to fetch those treats.  If a bird is caught up and placed aggressively in the carrier, it will quickly become a scary place they don’t want to go and each time will become harder and harder to get your bird into it. 
 
Before you can bring a bird into your home, you must purchase everything you will require for his care. Fortunately, all the items your pet will need should be available from your local pet store. The following are the basic must-have supplies.
 
Habitat
The size of the habitat you need will depend on the bird (or birds) you plan to keep, but a good rule of thumb is to house your bird in the largest habitat that you can afford and have room for in your home. (If you can't purchase or place a very large habitat, you shouldn't acquire a large bird.)
 
Your habitat should be square or rectangular rather than round to provide your pet with more room to fly and move. Also, the bars should be evenly spaced, not tapered toward the top. In a habitat with tapered bars, a bird can get his toe, wing, or even his head caught where the bars come together, causing serious injury. The habitat should also have a removable grate at the bottom (usually made of metal) above the habitat tray that catches the bird's waste and prevents him from getting to it.
The habitat itself should be made of metal or a combination of metal and plastic (combo habitats for small birds only). Stainless steel (best), powder-coated steel (better), and galvanized after weld (good) suitable habitat materials—other metals may contain harmful toxins that your bird could ingest. Acrylic habitats can also work well for smaller birds because the solid walls prevent mess, but moisture can build up in the habitat if it doesn't have adequate ventilation. 
 
Bedding/Habitat Lining
A variety of materials can be used to line your bird's habitat, but the best options are newspaper or commercial bird litters such as Kaytee Walnut Litter. Both are safe, inexpensive, easy to replace, and clearly show a bird's droppings, which can be important for monitoring his health. (A change in droppings may indicate a potential health problem.)  If you suspect health issues due to dropping appearance, place wax paper down as a liner to get a really good look at the droppings. 
 
Food and Water
Stainless steel is the ideal material for food & water cups because it's easy to scrub and disinfect. Although your habitat may come with a couple plastic cups, these can become scratched, allowing bacteria to grow in the crevices.  Birds can also be taught to use a water bottle, ensuring they cannot reach it and chew through it. 
 
Food
For long-term good health provide a balanced diet, preferably a pelleted of extruded diet.  Supplement with fresh vegetables and fruits depending on the species.  High value items like high fat seed and nuts make excellent training treats.   A seed mix diet may be deficient in minerals, especially calcium, as well as vitamins and amino acids, so mineral block or cuttlebone should be provided.  This should not be necessary if the bird is eating primarily a pelleted or extruded diet.
A breeding female may need additional calcium to form eggs. 
 
Perches
Perches can be made of natural branches, wood, plastic or PVC, rope, concrete, or pumice. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages. Offer your bird perches of assorted materials which vary in diameter. A bird who stands on the same perch consistently may develop foot disorders, especially if it is hard and abrasive or too large for its feet.  Ideally the foot should wrap approximately ¾ of the way around the perch.  Change out the perches, as you do bird toys this way a bird that likes to stand in the exact same spot will be forced to stand on a different perch. 
 
Bird Bath
Birds bathe in a variety of ways.  Some birds love to be misted with fine mist from a bottle of warm water, others love to bathe in a shallow bowl while others still will like to join you in the shower!  That’s right, you can purchase a shower perch and let your bird spend quality time with you.  Baths are very important to a birds’ health, remember many birds come from a tropical climate that is very humid and wet.  Play with bathing to find out which way your bird likes best, you want bathing to be enjoyable – not stressful!  Bathing supplies can be purchased at your local pet store or department store.  
 
Toys and Enrichment
Most birds benefit from having items in their habitat to keep them active and entertained. A wide variety of toys are available, and different birds enjoy different types of toys.
 
Provide a variety of toy types for your bird in the habitat setup: thinking toys (items that stimulate his mind); action toys (items that make a lot of noise or require your bird to move); comfort toys (items that your bird can enjoy calmly and quietly); and toys to destroy (items he can chew to keep his beak in good condition).  You’ll quickly see which toys your bird prefers and this will allow you to keep him well entertained.  A bored bird can quickly pick up bad, remember birds in the wild are very active and are ever moving and foraging.  
 
There are other ways to enrich your bird’s life than just toys, although toys are a necessary item! You can purchase or play video’s for your birds with other bird sounds or just interesting audio.  A more current approach is to enrich your bird by providing foraging opportunities, treats hidden within toys or homemade items such as a cardboard tube and coffee filters.  Be creative, but safe!
 
Travel Carrier
A travel carrier is necessary for taking your bird to the vet's office and other places. Soft fabric carriers are popular, but if your bird is ill they are difficult to disinfect.  Plastic airline kennels are also practical and easy to disinfect if needed. It should also have adequate ventilation and a place to put food and water dishes. If you plan to travel with your pet, select a model which will fit under the seat of an airplane.
It’s important to make the carrier a safe and desirable destination, this can be done by using it as a place to offer treats and allow your bird to walk in on its own to fetch those treats.  If a bird is caught up and placed aggressively in the carrier, it will quickly become a scary place they don’t want to go and each time will become harder and harder to get your bird into it. 
 
Before you can bring a bird into your home, you must purchase everything you will require for his care. Fortunately, all the items your pet will need should be available from your local pet store. The following are the basic must-have supplies.
 
Habitat
The size of the habitat you need will depend on the bird (or birds) you plan to keep, but a good rule of thumb is to house your bird in the largest habitat that you can afford and have room for in your home. (If you can't purchase or place a very large habitat, you shouldn't acquire a large bird.)
 
Your habitat should be square or rectangular rather than round to provide your pet with more room to fly and move. Also, the bars should be evenly spaced, not tapered toward the top. In a habitat with tapered bars, a bird can get his toe, wing, or even his head caught where the bars come together, causing serious injury. The habitat should also have a removable grate at the bottom (usually made of metal) above the habitat tray that catches the bird's waste and prevents him from getting to it.
The habitat itself should be made of metal or a combination of metal and plastic (combo habitats for small birds only). Stainless steel (best), powder-coated steel (better), and galvanized after weld (good) suitable habitat materials—other metals may contain harmful toxins that your bird could ingest. Acrylic habitats can also work well for smaller birds because the solid walls prevent mess, but moisture can build up in the habitat if it doesn't have adequate ventilation. 
 
Bedding/Habitat Lining
A variety of materials can be used to line your bird's habitat, but the best options are newspaper or commercial bird litters such as Kaytee Walnut Litter. Both are safe, inexpensive, easy to replace, and clearly show a bird's droppings, which can be important for monitoring his health. (A change in droppings may indicate a potential health problem.)  If you suspect health issues due to dropping appearance, place wax paper down as a liner to get a really good look at the droppings. 
 
Food and Water
Stainless steel is the ideal material for food & water cups because it's easy to scrub and disinfect. Although your habitat may come with a couple plastic cups, these can become scratched, allowing bacteria to grow in the crevices.  Birds can also be taught to use a water bottle, ensuring they cannot reach it and chew through it. 
 
Food
For long-term good health provide a balanced diet, preferably a pelleted of extruded diet.  Supplement with fresh vegetables and fruits depending on the species.  High value items like high fat seed and nuts make excellent training treats.   A seed mix diet may be deficient in minerals, especially calcium, as well as vitamins and amino acids, so mineral block or cuttlebone should be provided.  This should not be necessary if the bird is eating primarily a pelleted or extruded diet.
A breeding female may need additional calcium to form eggs. 
 
Perches
Perches can be made of natural branches, wood, plastic or PVC, rope, concrete, or pumice. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages. Offer your bird perches of assorted materials which vary in diameter. A bird who stands on the same perch consistently may develop foot disorders, especially if it is hard and abrasive or too large for its feet.  Ideally the foot should wrap approximately ¾ of the way around the perch.  Change out the perches, as you do bird toys this way a bird that likes to stand in the exact same spot will be forced to stand on a different perch. 
 
Bird Bath
Birds bathe in a variety of ways.  Some birds love to be misted with fine mist from a bottle of warm water, others love to bathe in a shallow bowl while others still will like to join you in the shower!  That’s right, you can purchase a shower perch and let your bird spend quality time with you.  Baths are very important to a birds’ health, remember many birds come from a tropical climate that is very humid and wet.  Play with bathing to find out which way your bird likes best, you want bathing to be enjoyable – not stressful!  Bathing supplies can be purchased at your local pet store or department store.  
 
Toys and Enrichment
Most birds benefit from having items in their habitat to keep them active and entertained. A wide variety of toys are available, and different birds enjoy different types of toys.
 
Provide a variety of toy types for your bird in the habitat setup: thinking toys (items that stimulate his mind); action toys (items that make a lot of noise or require your bird to move); comfort toys (items that your bird can enjoy calmly and quietly); and toys to destroy (items he can chew to keep his beak in good condition).  You’ll quickly see which toys your bird prefers and this will allow you to keep him well entertained.  A bored bird can quickly pick up bad, remember birds in the wild are very active and are ever moving and foraging.  
 
There are other ways to enrich your bird’s life than just toys, although toys are a necessary item! You can purchase or play video’s for your birds with other bird sounds or just interesting audio.  A more current approach is to enrich your bird by providing foraging opportunities, treats hidden within toys or homemade items such as a cardboard tube and coffee filters.  Be creative, but safe!
 
Travel Carrier
A travel carrier is necessary for taking your bird to the vet's office and other places. Soft fabric carriers are popular, but if your bird is ill they are difficult to disinfect.  Plastic airline kennels are also practical and easy to disinfect if needed. It should also have adequate ventilation and a place to put food and water dishes. If you plan to travel with your pet, select a model which will fit under the seat of an airplane.
It’s important to make the carrier a safe and desirable destination, this can be done by using it as a place to offer treats and allow your bird to walk in on its own to fetch those treats.  If a bird is caught up and placed aggressively in the carrier, it will quickly become a scary place they don’t want to go and each time will become harder and harder to get your bird into it. 
 
Pet Birds